Then an article was published by Bob Silverman and coworkers in Ohio and Seattle. This work was supported by a Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship WT098049AIA to SJDN. However, many retrovirologists had been here before. One anonymous observer noticed a similarity between the slide and a figure in Mikovits's Science article. According to the Vaccine Knowledge Project at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, “a pear contains around 50 times more formaldehyde than is found in any vaccine.”. If there was a new retrovirus infecting untold number of Americans, they needed to know right now. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Even more surprising data followed. And importantly, given the sad history of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C, concern was raised that XMRV had contaminated blood banks.
Laboratories struggled with precisely the same issues now discussed on the news regarding SARS-CoV2 testing, with the key being to demonstrate that the test is sensitive enough to detect very low number of copies of the virus while avoiding false positives. Vaccines that incorporate living bacteria or viruses are called live attenuated vaccines. Aluminum is a naturally occurring metal that has many uses aside from its adjuvant properties. Mikovits's statement that she thought XMRV might be the cause of autism has been picked up by the antivaccine movement led by the disgraced British ex-doctor, Andrew Wakefield, who himself had his medical license revoked for falsely linking the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to childhood developmental problems.
In this Special Feature article, we explore the various components that go into modern vaccines and discuss the purpose of these ingredients. However, subsequent research did not back up the findings, and the World Health Organization (WHO) concluded in 2006 that these fears were “unfounded.”.
Both of these cell lines were established from cells taken from the lungs of aborted fetuses. In men, prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death; risk factors are known, but the exact cause remains elusive. (e.g. It also provides an excellent example of the self-correcting nature and rigour of the scientific process.
Here…. However, many experts disagree with this assessment, pointing out that some of the research implicating aluminum has been retracted. In fact, these sequences were identical to one of the 22RV1 viruses. Many vaccines, therefore, use an inactivated version of the active ingredients, which can take the form of whole bacteria or viruses that have been killed. Understandably, therefore, Mikovits's XMRV article generated a lot interest. And although similar symptoms can be seen in people recovering from a number of serious infections, ME/CFS sufferers complained of not being taken seriously and being accused of malingering. The trouble with this conspiracy theory is that not only is it demonstrably untrue, much of it derives from a scientific fraud that Mikovits and coworkers perpetrated in 2009. Measles, mumps, whooping cough, and tuberculosis are making a comeback. Glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde are chemicals used to inactivate toxins from viruses and bacteria in some vaccines. The only “evidence” ever published by her was unequivocally shown to stem from laboratory contamination and explicit fabrication of data. This is underscored by the recent introduction of the Gardasil vaccine to prevent infection by strains of human papillomavirus that can cause cervical cancer in women. Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Despite the controversies in the CFS field, at that time the XMRV prostate cancer story remained an open question. This observation formed the basis of a project to hunt for viruses in prostate cancer tissue, leading to the first report of the presence of a gammaretrovirus called xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer, which was predominately found in individuals who had both copies of the lower-activity RNase L gene. The origin and transmission route of XMRV are still unknown at present; however, XMRV may be derived from ERVs of rodents because X-MLVs are ERVs of inbred and wild mice. There was something strange about the Alter study, first noticed by Stephane Hue in Prof. Greg Towers' group at University College London.18 They had started looking at the 22RV1 prostate cancer cell line that Bob Silverman had shown was persistently infected and producing live XMRV. Animal cells used for this purpose include kidney cells from African green monkeys (Vero cells) and chick embryo cells. Sugars and flavoring in syrups mask the potentially unpleasant taste of the formulation, while colors help people avoid mistaking one drug for another.
We usually would not pay much heed to such things, but for retrovirologists like us, the name associated with these claims is unfortunately too familiar: Dr. Judy Mikovits. However, most vaccines are actually acellular, which means that they do not contain the whole pathogenic organism. Her claims have been picked up by right-wing commentators in the United States desperate to show that the lockdown measures taken against COVID-19 are a pernicious over-reaction designed to damage President Trump, whose inconsistent handling of the crisis has garnered a huge amount of criticism. Further U.K. studies were stymied on the eve of publication.15 ME/CFS sufferers who had originally consented to taking part were encouraged by the same activists to withdraw it en masse when it became known that they too could find no evidence of XMRV in the blood samples.16 Other studies elsewhere in the world also failed to corroborate Mikovits's findings. He … XMRV, believed by her then to be a “new infectious human retrovirus,” made CFS sufferers feel better because there was a known cause for their ailment. Mikovits was swiftly fired from the WPI who accused her of insubordination and misappropriating documents.28 After fleeing to California to avoid arrest, Mikovits returned documents to the WPI that a member of her laboratory had taken for her, and the charges were dropped. The integration sites—the sequence of the human DNA either side of the virus—were identical to integration sites sequenced from experimentally infected cells in the same laboratory.20,21 The chances of this being coincidence is so vanishingly small as to not be worth bothering with. XMRV was highly similar to endogenous retroviruses found in mice and other mammals, and with the amount of mouse DNA kicking around many laboratories, the sensitive tests that detected the presence of XMRV DNA in samples were prone to contamination.10–12 It would not be the first time that a novel human retrovirus turned out to be a laboratory contamination,13 and this needed to be ruled out by independent studies as soon as possible. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. To do this is very easy: one orders a set of fairly cheap reagents from a company and within 2–3 days you have the tools to test samples. And predictably, now that the first immunization trials have started, the antivaccine lobby has latched on to most of them. XMRV is a murine leukemia virus (MLV) that formed through the recombination of the genomes of two parent MLVs known as preXMRV-1 and preXMRV-2. Her reappearance now as an apparently maligned “scientific leader” challenging the orthodoxy on vaccines and COVID-19 would be a source of eye-rolling were she not being taken seriously by countless Internet warriors posting and reposting the trailer for Plandemic. It lacked a robust case definition, its symptoms varied widely but could be incredibly debilitating, often associated with mental health problems. Some people have voiced concerns over the safety of polysorbate 80 after research showed potential links to reproductive problems in female rats and premature ovarian failure in girls receiving the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine. The chance of any human cell material being present in the vaccine is very small. If a role for XMRV is established, there could be new opportunities for prevention and treatment of these diseases. Excipients include preservatives and stabilizers, traces of things that were used to produce the vaccine, and adjuvants. Steer well clear of Plandemic and the claims of Judy Mikovits. They had sent Mikovits XMRV as a circular DNA form, known as a plasmid, which allows the viral genome to be grown up safely in bacteria. The receptor for XMRV is XPR1, a cell surface protein ubiquitously expressed in many human and animal cells.
Mainstream medical opinion was divided, but psychiatrists had found that some ME/CFS sufferers benefitted from cognitive behavioral therapy. The whole saga provides an invaluable lesson to researchers attempting to find associations between viral infections and human diseases such as cancer (see Weiss 2010). Of course, to Mikovits and the activists supporting her claims, these were the increasingly desperate ravings of a “scientific establishment” trying to silence her. From the virus being deliberately released as a bioweapon to pharmaceutical companies blocking the trials of natural remedies to boost their dangerous drugs and vaccines, the Internet is rife with far-fetched rumors. What is the purpose of the likes of gelatin, thimerosal, and Polysorbate 80? Aluminum salts are also used in the food industry as additives. Then Silverman's group wrote to Science to explain that they had found evidence of plasmid DNA spiking in the WPI samples and, therefore, were not confident of the veracity of their part of Mikovits's article. Science published both the negative blood service study that found no evidence of XMRV in a new batch of ME/CFS patients and Coffin, Hu and Pathak's study documenting the natural history of XMRV.26,27 Still Mikovits and the WPI were unmoved, and some of the activists became even more abusive to the scientists trying to sort this mess out. This was very compelling evidence that not only could not XMRV be replicating in these people, it was very likely to be a laboratory contamination from the 22RV1 cell line. They had been using a new technology to identify novel viruses in prostate cancer, and they had got a hit. In fact, they make these mistakes so regularly, that in an individual infected with a retrovirus like HIV-1, there is no one virus sequence, but rather a group or “swarm” of related sequences.
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